Product was successfully added to your shopping cart.

Follow us

special products

The Role of Human Resources in the Development of Industrial Infrastructure (Case Study The Leather Industry)

  • Thursday, July 27, 2017
  • Related Articles

The Role of Human Resources in the Development of Industrial Infrastructure (Case Study: The Leather Industry)
1) Dr. Nasser Fegh-hi Farahmand
Department of Industrial Management, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

2) Dr. Mohammad Dabbaghi Sadr
D.B.A. Strategic Management, Tabriz, Iran
Managing Director of Sadra Tannery

The main and most crucial asset of any organization is its human resources. The quality and capability of human resources, is the most important factor in the survival and viability of the organization. Competent workforce creates competent organizations. A competent organization is an environment in which employees cooperate with each other in different groups of activities. Overview of the status of human resources in the leather industry reveals that illiterate employees are most, and literate ones mostly have middle school diplomas and a very small percent have high school diplomas, indicating a very dangerous situation of human resources in Leather industry and indicates the necessity of revisions and changes in the structure of human resources in the organization. In the current situation, according to a new look to modern management and improvement of its situation to the real position, the sensitivity of this matter has become more. The aim of this study is to determine the components of infrastructure development of leather industry and to formulate an appropriate model for the development of infrastructures of Tabriz leather industry. Research questions include what are the components of development model of good infrastructures of leather industry? And based on mentioned components what model can be provided for development of good infrastructures of leather industry? The research was descriptive - survey. Research sampling, is systematic random sampling. In this study, 120 questionnaires were used for analysis. Research Methods, are library and field studies. Research data collection instruments include, internet, all international database of articles, interviews, and the final step is questionnaire. Based on the results of studying a series of articles, related theories, and interviews, and components and related indicators, parameters and variables of research are formulated.
Keywords: Human resource, development, infrastructure, leather industry

Certainly, human resources, in all the centuries, have been considered as the most important factor of development, and always have been proposed as the engine of development. In the present era, that human has achieved great advances in science and technology, despite the technology's role in the economic and industrial development, not only the importance of human resources is not diminished, but also paying attention to the issue of human resources, as creator and employer of technology has become increasingly necessary. Human force is one of the most important elements of organizational development and realization of long-term and short-term goals of any institution and organization. Strategic management, in process development programs, considers human resource development to include two components: the selection and growth. In the first component, the human resources required are identified and in the second component, these resources accustom their task, and are properly equipped to do it correctly, so that they can work in the environment with changing conditions. In the process of human resources development, these two components must simultaneously be organized. The most important element of any system is human force, who can lead the country towards developmental goals. Proper use of human force has always been considered by governments, as the most valuable and the greatest wealth of any society, as an important issue, in other words, it can be said that, humans is considered as both the goal of development and its operator and the realization of development goals, to a considerable extent, depends on how to run and manage these vital sources and wealth. Before beginning the process of the development of human resources, understanding about organization tasks and expertise required to perform these tasks is essential. To achieve this important matter, human resource planning, is serious need of any organization. In human force planning, the first step is to understand the present status, bottlenecks and problems. Human force problem in the leather industry must be considered as the most important and fundamental problem and lack of skilled and efficient human force in productive activities, in comparison with the needs of the various activities is a serious bottleneck in production and development of human resources should be emphasized as strategic policy.
The role of human resources in the development of industrial infrastructure of the leather industry
Human force problem in the leather industry must be considered as the most important and fundamental problem, and among insufficiencies and bottlenecks of comprehensive plans in implementation, failures and managerial, organizational and human force bottlenecks exist in the leather industry, and include weakness of manufacturing units in various aspects of employment, organizational, managerial and deficiency of laws in these cases, lack of qualified staff in leather production, being inexperienced personnel, the inability to attract experts in leather production due to the limitations in the organizational chart and the low level of wages, restrictions of the country’s employment law on the payment of adequate salaries and benefits to staff and thus low uptake of existing forces by the private sector, lack of creating executive authorities in leather relevant organizations. Human force planning in the leather industry at macro level demands that by systematic collection of information, analysis of situations and supply and demand processes of human force and understanding different ways, the actual number of people needed for various businesses can be acquired and at micro and local level, by analysis of past and present human force condition, to determine the ways in which required human resources are defined and adopted in the appropriate time and place.
The study is a fundamental research as well as applied and since the purpose of research is to collect description and analyze and provide a model, research method is descriptive - survey. In every statistical analysis, the set of required elements is called community. In other words, the community is the set of all possible observations that can be obtained by repeating a test (Amidi, 1390). The population of this study is all the leather factories and production units of eastern Azerbaijan province and respondents are top managers of leather factories and production units of eastern Azerbaijan province. Collecting information from a part of the community is called sampling. (Amidi, 1390)
Research sampling method is systematic random sampling. Because the list of all production units in the leather industry was available, this method is used. To determine the sample size, the Cochran formula is used. Statistical sample size was achieved 169 persons, and for facilitating, questionnaires were sent to 170 factories, that 140 factories answered the questionnaire and 20 answered questionnaires were unusable since they were incomplete. In this study, 120 questionnaires were used.
In this research, qualitative and quantitative methods have been used that in the first step, qualitative method is used for finding the effective and key variables and factors in industry development and in the second step, quantitative method is used in order to prove that selected factors and variables have reliability and validity and are properly chosen and used. Also, in the second step, the effect of each variable in the leather industry (impact coefficients) was identified. Research Method is library and field studies. Research data collection instruments include, internet, all international database of articles, interviews, and the final step is questionnaire. In the library method, all theses, internal management papers, professional leather industry essays, and also article of databases such as Emerald and Science Direct were used.
Research findings
This research seeks to develop infrastructures of Tabriz leather industry and to provide guidelines for this development. In this paper, for data collection in relation to the development of leather industry infrastructures, a questionnaire consisting of two sections, is designed, the first part contains questions in relation to demographic characteristics of respondents and the second part after reviewing existing and previous literature and using interviews conducted, 179 cases were considered as the factors influencing the development and improvement of the leather industry, which were divided into seven groups, and were examined in seven option Likert scale, including internal human resources, external human resources, advocacy and support, rules, technology, business dealings and innovation.
In this section statistical data first examines demographic variables of research (age, education, etc.). The second section includes descriptive statistics of survey questionnaire, and the third section analytical statistics of the study are proposed. In the present study, to examine the normality of the variables and to determine the appropriate type of test to analyze data, Kolmogorov-Smirnovis test is used, that results show that all variables are normal. To test the presented model and to find a suitable model for the study, multivariate regression is used. Mean comparison tests and analysis of variance for the effect of demographic variables, in response to questions related to research hypotheses are used. In order to determine the gender of sample accurately, one of the questions in the questionnaire is related to this component.
As can be seen in Table 1, 118 persons (98.34 percent) of the survey sample were men and 2 persons (1.66 percent) were women, and suggest that, in the leather industry of Iran, a very small number of women staff are working in this industry also this reflects the fact that, in this industry, unfortunately, female employees are not used. This could be due to the type of culture, or lack of training for women in this industry. Compared with the leading countries in the leather industry, mostly in the final stages of leather production, women employees are used (color stamping, sorting and packaging) that have important effects on the quality of the leather. Unfortunately, in the leather industry, the women are used least. Table 1.

As it could be seen in the table, 118 (98/34 percent) of the statistical samples are man and 2 (1/66 percent) are woman and it shows that there are low number of women who work in leather organization. It shows that unfortunately this organization do not employ woman. It could be related to culture or lack of education in this regard. In comparison with developed countries, mostly women work in the final stages of production (painting, sorting and packing) that influences the quality of the leather. Unfortunately women are not used as work force in this field.
From educational standpoint, the statistical samples are classified to 5 groups. The following table shows their education level as Table 2.

As it could be seen in the table, around 20.84 percent of the population (25) are uneducated or less than high school diploma, 37.5 percent (45) high school diploma, 16.67 percent (20) associate course, 15.48 percent (19) B.Sc, 6.66 percent (8) M.Sc and 2.5 percent (3) PhD. Most of the research population was of high school diploma education level.
Considering the work experience, the statistical sample were classified in 6 group, table 4 shows their level of experience as Table 3.

As it could be observed from the table, 120 of the statistical sample around 25 percent (30) have under 1-3 years of experience, 25 percent (30) 4-7 years, 12.5 percent (15) experience of 8-10 years, 14.16 percent (17) experience of 11-15 years, 15 percent (18) 16-20 years and 8.33 percent (10) have more than 20 years of experience.
Considering the age of the sample, they could be classified in 6 groups that table 5 shows their condition as Table 4.

According to the information inserted in table, 12.5 percent (15) are 20-30, 16.67 percent (20) are 30-40, 22.5 percent (27) are 40-50, 31.67 percent (38) are 50-60, and 12.5 percent (15) are between 60 to 70 years old. The rest were unanswered. The number of personnel in each production unit is as Table 5.

Most of the companies in leather organization have less than 20 workers that show the smallness of these units. According to previous studies, in developed countries there are more than 50 workers in factories of this field (WTO. 2010). After analyses, interviews and considering the records of the research, the suggested model of the researcher are as follows:
According to the gathered information through library studies and interview with experts of the field, the influential elements on leather organization were recognized and since after data collection through tests first elements were in acceptable condition, an analysis was carried out. Table 9 shows that the suggested model is valid for development of the leather organization. Table 7 shows that R2 is 0.989 and it shows that independent variables in the model form 98.9 percent of the variable changes in leather organization. Considering the available scales this model is acceptable. Considering ANOVAs table, α of the table is 0.000 and F of the table is 648.128 that show its acceptance as Table 6.


Management is the most important factor in survival, growth, and development of organizations. Achieving sustainable productivity, creativity, and proper quality of life depends on human resource management and efficient, effective, intelligent and committed human resource. Since human resource is considered as the most valuable production factor, most important asset, main source of competitive advantage, and creator of essential capabilities of each organization, one of the most effective ways to achieve competitive advantage in the current conditions, is to make organizations’ employees more efficient. What is important in the development of human resources is that improving human resources is achieved not only through technical and professional training, but also the development of employees’ training should be in various ways, and this will not be possible except application of strategic programs in the territory of human resource management.
Consistency in the development programs of human resources requires the development programs of empowering employees, that human resource management plays an important role in consolidating and integrating these programs to provide a suitable model for empowering employees. Personnel Management is an area that has a history as old as the total management area, but naturally has changed and evolved. The turning point of this change and evolution is where instead of personnel management, human resource management is discussed. Human resource management, in addition to having personnel management principles and concepts, considers new and more general approaches in the management of human resources.
If the policies and procedures of the organization employees match each other and contribute substantially to the achievement of organizational goals and strategic plans, having access to organization's success is more likely. Overall culture and values, organizational conditions and managerial behavior from which culture stems, have a great influence on achieving desired excellence. Such a culture is required to be managed, which means that a continuous effort must be done to achieve the reception and implementation of them. Integration requires continuous effort. Integration means that, all members of the organization work together with a sense of common purpose.
In today's competitive world, one of the most important tools for the evolution and survival of the organization and to achieve desired goals and objectives is the human element. In the meantime, what realizes the evolution issue and also ensures the survival of the organization, is human resources. Organizational success, depends on an effective mixture of money, materials, machines and human resources to achieve short-term and long-term goals, and due to complexity, variety and uniqueness of organizations, many fields of expertise are developed, to maximize the potential benefits of each one of the components.
In fact, if we lack creative, expert, opportunist people in the organization, we will lose many opportunities and situations. To achieve the goal of globalization, or even staying at this level, breeding and replacement of new forces, in order to continue the growth and progress is essential, and the future of the industry belongs to who the plan and aim for it. This is how changes in organizational structure and human resources is inevitable, and management scientists believe that change and evolution in human resources is the root of all organizational success. Obviously, if there is no change in human resource management, the industry is certainly doomed to die.
So planning in the regard of human resource development and designing programs for empowerment of human resources is one of the essential strategies to achieve sustainable development and globalization, that human resource managers, play an important role in it. The structure and method of research, based on appropriate methods of research questions was designed and research model was presented. In this section, the relationship between the infrastructure of leather industry and performance of organizations were fully understood. Survey instrument, which was obtained after the interview, was confirmed, and was sent to the sample. After collecting data and grouping, analysis was performed and according to the results obtained and summarizing the results of the data analysis, we offer suggestions. Proposed model is for the development of leather infrastructure, using components extracted from the theoretical principles and experimental background and components that are included in the questionnaire.
The first proposed model of appropriate infrastructure development of leather industry is in Iran and therefore is not comparable (due to lack of other models) with other models. Considering the effective role of human resources in the development of the leather industry, the presence of the experienced teachers with modern science in the leather industry, and professionally trained workers, mutual commitment of employers and employees and enhancing managers’ level of literacy in manufacturing units and scientific knowledge of officials in office that are associated with the leather industry, and the essential support that they make, can make the way smoother for infrastructure development of the leather industry.
Traditional nature of leather industry, is one the reducing agents in the development of the leather industry in East Azarbaijan, meaning that lack of appropriate update technology, enjoying the very least experience of the scientific world, the absence of the R & D and equipped laboratories in production units, lack of attention to standards for raw skin from the slaughter to the sunburn, the necessary standards for chemical raw materials used in the tanning and factors related to them, caused the leather industry not to develop. Organizations to grow and develop their human resources are forced to use new efficient methods of management, because both they benefit from the development process and also has many positive impacts of the organization's workforce.
One of the primary objectives of human resource management is creating and providing an environment through which, potentials of employees are discovered and flourished and their commitment to the organization increases. This potential, not only is related to their ability to learn and apply new knowledge and skills, but also includes valuable ideas and opinions about the organization. In the concept of development and training of human resource, the goal is to develop skills that a person can prepare himself to obtain higher employment and heavier responsibilities. Therefore, educational programs of human resource development are to grow persons without current or future organizational business relationship.
This does not mean that the result of the educational programs of development are useless in current or future businesses of the organization employees, but the programs are designed and in a word, the goal of educational programs of development is to hold organization alive and persistent that adaptation process and change of practices and policies of the organization, are easily done.
Ahmadi Bahzad and Sami Saeid (1987), Chemistry of skin and leather, Mohit press
Ahmadi Siavash (1990), The technology of leather, Standard and industrial research of Iran Institute press
Environment department of Khorasan Razavi, 2008
Ajdar, Sousan and Dehghan Menshadi, Gholamreza, (2009), Studying the patterns of development of petrol industry in world and the strategy of development and its infrastructures in Iran, First conference on national engineering and management of the infrastructures
Scott, Sinita and Jaf denis (2004), Enabling the personnel, Translated by Mehdi Iran Nezhad parizi, The institute of research and management education, Karaj, 2nd Ed.
The innovation information of EU according to CIS, Ed 2000
F, Ahrvey, R Brown (1998) Experimental approach, Developing the organization, (management of change) Translated by Abbas Mohammadzadeh, Education center of governmental management press, first Ed
Ansari Renani, Hamidreza, (2008), Livestock skin, problems and strategies, Livestock research center
Izadkhah, R (2007), Analyzing the trivialization in industrial structure of Iran, Planning and budget magazine, No.9, P 41-68
Azar Adel (2004) , Statistics and practice in management, SAMT press, Tehran, Third Ed
Arthure, Merhorn, Jhon, (2002), Management and organizational behavior, Translated by Irannezhad Parizi, Modiran press, Tehran, First Ed.
Bazarghan, A (1997), Research methods in behavioral sciences, Agah press, Tehran
Bazarganinia, Masumeh, (2002), The influence of globalization on textile industry, Cloths and leather during 1979- 1999,
Boroumand, Zahra, (1993), Improving and restoration of organization, Hoor press, p 120
Bazzaz Jazaieri, Seyed Ahmad, The strategy of approach in quality management in higher education, Iran quality society, 2002
Backhard, Richard (1997), The management of basic changes, translated by Mehdi Khodaparast, Commerce research institute, p 20
Blanchard Kent, John Carlos and Alen Randolf, Enabling the personnel, translated by Mehdi Irannezhad Parizi
The internet database of Tehran stock exchange
Porter, Michel, Competing strategy of the techniques for analyzing the industry and competitors, Tehran, Rasa Cultural services, First Ed. 2005
Pahlavani Ata Ali, (1998), A research by the title of studying the export of light leather products and offering suitable strategies for improving
Peiman Pak, Alireza (2008), Development of gas, challenges and strategies, Iran petrol and gas network technology
Tebit, Marc (2005), The philosophy of law, Razavi Islamic knowledge university
J. Cummings, K Varly, ( 1996), Organization development and change, translated by Abbas Mohammadzadeh, Islamic Azad University press, first Ed.
The framework and concept of superior technologies, The technology policies research group, Ministry of mining and industry, Navin new industry center
Hafeznia, Mohammadreza (2003), An introduction to research methods in human sciences, Tehran, The organization of preparing humanitarian books of universities (SAMT) 8th Ed.
Alhosseini, Seyed Hasan, (2000), The theory of continuous engineering in organization, (C.E.O) Hormozghan University, First Ed.
Houri, Amir (1997), A research under the title of strategy of development for placing skin and leather industry,
Khaki, G, R (1999) Research method under the title of an approach towards writing thesis, Darit press center, Tehran, 2nd Ed.
Khaki, Gholamreza, (2006), The article of “The paradox of order and chaos the main challenge of artistic management”, the seminar of artistic management
Dahi Ali (1980), From skin to leather, The center of research and education of Melli shoe press
Draker, Pitter, “The new society of the organizations” translated by Abbas Monavarian. Governmental management magazine, No 32, p 1
Does, D. E (2004), Survey in social researches, (Naeini, translator), Tehran, Ney press, (date of publication in original language, 1991)
Sarookhani, B (2003), The methods of research in social sciences, The research center of human sciences and economic studies, Tehran, 8th Ed.
TMBA site
Sarmad ZOhreh (1999), Research method in behavioral sciences, Agah press, Tehran, 2nd Ed.
Sarvari, Mahmoodreza, Karari Habib (2010) Analytical study of development model in industrial units (Kavi pattern for development of Iran Khodro press department) eleventh conference on manufacturing and production engineering of Iran
Saadat, Esfandiar, The management of change, Knowledge of management, No 4, p 36
Sekaran Ema (2001), The methods of research in management, translated by Mahmood Saebi and Mahmood Shirazi, Tehran, Governmental management education center
Sanjari, Seyed Mohsen (2008) The development of tea industry in Iran: future and challenges, North tea department, Lahijan
Shahi bey, Azadeh, Hashemi, Leila, Reengineering of human resources through IT, Tadbir magazine, 16th year, No 164
Shafeiei, Saeid, (2000) Analyzing the influential elements on development of Mazandaran industry, M.A thesis, Mazandaran University
Shahidi Mohammad Naghi, (1988), A look to elements of development in Japan, Management knowledge, summer 1988, No 1
Samad Aghaei, Jalil (1998) From job creation to birth, Tadbir magazine, No 87
Industry, Mining and Trade (2011)
Taheri Lari, Masoud (1998) The management of change in organization, Derakhshesh press
Toosi Mohammad Ali (1991) Participation in management and ownership, Governmental education center, Tehran
Toosi Mohammad Ali (1995) Improvement and restoration, Payam Noor University, p 180
ZOhoori, Seyed Ehsan and Jamal Arash Manesh (2000) Studying the importance and strategies of development in sugar cane production in Khoozestan province, Agriculture in Iran 2025
Amidi Ali (2004), Sampling methods, Payam Noor University
Amidi Ali, (2010) Sampling, methods and functions, written by Paul S. Levi and Stanley Lemisho, Statistics research center
Ghalebi Mohammad (2005), A research under the title of studying relative privilege and priority in aim goal markets of skin and leather export of Iran
Ghafoori Ahmad (2004) Studying the economy of energy, market and development emphasizing the future of petrochemical industry, Iran and the Middle East, National Petrochemical industry, management of planning and development
French and H Bell (2006) The management of change in organization, translated by Alvani and Danaeifard, Saffar press, Tehran 11th Ed.
Feghhi Farahmand, Nasser (2005), The management of organization strategy Foroozesh press
Feghhi Farahmand, Nasser (2007), Providing strategic plan for organization (practical and theoretical), Foroozesh press
Faghih Nasiri Marjan (1994) A research under the title of country’s relative privileges in leather industry
Gharadaghi Akram, Ahanghari Amir Hossein, Baiboordi Sima, ELiasi Zarrin Ghobaei Ghorban (2005), The role of correct management in achieving health and quality of livestock skin, The first conference and festival of national production of healthy products and resistant development in agriculture, p 99
Cniner, Stwart, Key standpoints of management, translated by Mohammad Ali Hosseinnezhad, Cultural research center, 2002
Kalbasi Hassan, Jalaei Seyed Abdolmajid (2002), Studying the globalization effect on foreign trade of Iran, Economic researches of Iran, summer 2002, 137-115(11)4
Report group of Tadbir magazine, Enabling the personnel, The investing without alternative, Tadbir No 129, 2002
Tadbir magazine, Scientific-Educational magazine in management, 17th year, No 171, August 2006
Madhooshi Mehrdad, and Niazi Isa (2010), Studying the development of tourism in Golestan province, Knowledge and development magazine, (scientific-educational) 17th year, No 30
The management of science (2011), industry, mining and trade
Statistics center of Iran 2009
Masoomi, Maryam (2007), Providing strategy for planning a system of supplying the parts in the frame of managing the supplement chain, M.A thesis, Dr. Ghazanfari, Science and industry university
Mansoorvazi (1975) Art and industry of skin painting, Ashina press
Mehrpooya, Abbas (2005), Competitive strategy, the techniques of industry and competitor analyses, Rasa press, Tehran
Mirzaei Aharanjani, Hassan and Moghimi, Seyed Mohammad (2003), Providing proper organizational pattern for non-governmental organization using the job creation approach, Managemnt science, No 62
Nasirian, Hassan (2011), The challenges of leather industry in Iran during last half century, the technical, educational, research and informative magazine of Iran Leather industry society, No 26
Nasiri yar, Mojtaba (2006), Three superior approach in strategic management, Tadbir magazine, 17th year, No 3
Viten David E. and Kim E. Cameron, Enabling and empowerment, translated by Baderddin Oraei Yazdanei, Management research and educational institute, 2002
Viten David E. and Kim E. Cameron, The expertise of obtaining strength and applying force, translated by Mohammadali Babaei Tazkliki, Management research and educational institute, 2002
-(The) China Daily (2008), “200m Chinese working for private enterprises”, available at:
-(The) World Bank (2006), “Ghana: World Bank supports micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) development”, News Release No. 2006/230/AFR, The World Bank, Washington, DC, available at: (accessed December 8, 2009).2009).
-a comparative analysis of their motivations success characteristics, and problems”, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 295-322. (accessed November 8, 2005).
-Ahmet Toptas)1993(, Deri Teknolojisi, T.C.Istanbul Universitesi,
-Anderson, A.R., Li, J.H., Harrison, R.T. and Robson, P.J.A. (2003), “The increasing role of small business in the Chinese economy”, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 41 No. 3, pp. 310-16.
-Ariyo, D. (2005), “Small firms are backbone of the Nigeria economy”, available at: www.
-Bell. M, & Albu.M, Technological Dynamism in Industrial downsizing in Developing countries, European journal of management ,2005.
-Bell. M, & Albu.M, Technological Dynamism in Industrial downsizing in Developing countries, European journal of management ,2005.
-Bell. M, & Albu.M, Technological Dynamism in Industrial downsizing in Developing countries, European journal of management ,2005.
-Benzing, C., Chu, H.M. and Callanan, G. (2005a), “Regional comparison of the motivation and problems of Vietnamese entrepreneurs”, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, Vol. 10, pp. 3-27.
-Benzing, C., Chu, H.M. and Kara, O. (2009), “Entrepreneurs in Turkey: a factor analysis of motivations, success factors and problems”, Journal of Small Business Management,
-Benzing, C., Chu, H.M. and Szabo, B. (2005b), “Hungarian and Romanian entrepreneurs in Romania – motivation, problems, and differences”, Journal of Global Business, Vol. 16,
-Brockhaus, R.H. (1982), “The psychology of entrepreneur”, in Kent, C.A., Sexton, D.L. and
-broesma ,in search of the future,6-12 series,traning and development,jan 1995,p.38
- Broh Robert A.( 1982) managing quality for higher profits, mc graw-hill
-Buttner, E.H. and Moore, D.P. (1997), “Women’s organizational exodus to entrepreneurship: self-reported motivations and correlates with success”, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 35 No. 1, pp. 34-46.
-Cachon, G.P. and Fisher, M. (2000), “Supply chain inventory management and value of shared
-CEEDR (1998), Young Women, Ethnic Minority and Co-entrepreneurs: Final Report, CEEDR, Middlesex University, London.
-Chay, Y.W. (1993), “Social support, individual differences and well-being: a study of small business entrepreneurs and employees”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational (accessed April 10, 2010).
-Chu, H.M. and Benzing, C. (2004), “Vietnamese entrepreneurs: motivation, problems, and success factors”, Journal of Global Business, Vol. 15 No. 28, pp. 25-33.
-Chu, H.M. and Katsioloudes, M.I. (2001), “Cultural context in the Vietnamese-American
-Chu, H.M., Benzing, C. and McGee, C. (2007a), “Ghanaian and Kenyan entrepreneurs:
-Chu, H.M., Kara, O. and Benzing, C. (2007b), “Turkish entrepreneurs: motivation for business ownership, success factors, problems, and stress”, International Journal of Business and Economics Perspectives, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 106-23.
-Chu, H.M., Kara, O. and Benzing, C. (2008), “An empirical study of Nigerian entrepreneurs:success, motivations, problems, and stress”, International Journal of Business Research, Vol. 8 No. 2, pp. 102-14.
-Coviello, N.E. and Jones, M.V. (2004), “Methodological issues in international entrepreneurship research”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 19, pp. 485-508.
-Coy, S.P., Shipley, M.F. and Rao, N.A. (2007), “Factors contributory to success: a study of Pakistan’s small business owners”, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, available at: (accessed December 8, 2009).
-Crampton, S.M., Hodge, J.W., Jiterdra, M. and Price, S. (1995), “Stress and stress management”, SAM Advanced Management Journal, Vol. 60, pp. 10-24.
-Crosby Philip B. (1979) quality is free, new American library
-Dana, L. (1998), “Small but not independent SMEs in Japan”, Journal of Small Business
-Davis, D. (2000), “China’s consumer revolution”, Current History, September, pp. 248-54.
Directorate, November 3-4, available at: (accessed August 24, 2006).
-Djankov, S. and Murrell, P. (2002), “Enterprise restructuring in transition: a quantitative survey”,Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 40 No. 3, pp. 739-92.
-Drucker, P.F. (2001), The Essential Drucker, Harper Collins, New York, NY.IJLM 21,3 534
-Dyer, W.G.J. and Wilkins, A.L. (1991), “Better stories, not better constructs, to generate better theory: a rejoinder to Eisenhardt”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 16 No. 3,pp. 613-9.
Economic Review, Vol. 92, pp. 1335-56.
-Eisenhardt, K.M. (1989a), “Building theories from case study research”, Academy of
-Elliott, A.C., & Woodward, W.A. (2006) Statistical Analysis Quick Reference Guidebook, Sage.
-Keppel, G. & Wickens, T.D. (2004). Design and Analysis: A Researcher’s Handbook (4th Ed.), Pearson Prentice Hall.-Moher D, Dulberg CS, Wells GA. Statistical power, sample size, and their reporting in randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 1994;272:122-124.
-Moore, D. and McCabe, G. (2006). Introduction to the Practice of Statistics, Fourth Edition, New York: WH Freeman & Co.
-Sin, leo.y.m et al.(2005), Conceptualization and scale development, European Journal of Marketing,39(September), 1264 – 1290.
-Churchill, G.A. Jr (1979), “A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 64-73.
-Enrique Minarro-Viseras, Tim Baines and Mike Sweeney(2005), Key success factors when implementing strategic manufacturing initiatives, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 25 No. 2,
Enterprise Development, Vol. 18 No. 2
entrepreneurial experience”, Journal of Transnational Development, Vol. 7 No. 2, pp. 37-46.
entrepreneurial motivation”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 29-42.
F. M . Read . & K . Walsh Technological Innovation Within the supply chain
-Feldman.m, Urata.V, Shujiro.B, support policies of organization downsizing, ninth edition, upper saddle river, nj:prentice hall, 2006.
-Feldman.m, Urata.V, Shujiro.B, support policies of organization downsizing, ninth edition, upper saddle river, nj:prentice hall, 2006.
-Feldman.m, Urata.V, Shujiro.B, support policies of organization downsizing, ninth edition, upper saddle river, nj:prentice hall, 2006.
-Fernando Peris Bonet, Carlos Rueda Armengot and Miguel A ´ ngel Galindo Martı´n(2011) Entrepreneurial success and human resources, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 32 No. 1
-Fernando.a, challenges of Downsizing, Employment and Organization, ninth edition, upper saddle river, nj:prentice hall, 2005.
-Fernando.a, challenges of Downsizing, Employment and Organization, ninth edition, upper saddle river, nj:prentice hall, 2005.
-Fernando.a, challenges of Downsizing, Employment and Organization, ninth edition, upper saddle river, nj:prentice hall, 2005.
-Frazer.C, Downsizing and it’s Impact on Joint Marketing Activities; First Exploratory Insights for an Empirical Cross-Country Analysis, Journal of Business Strategy, 2006.
-Frazer.C, Downsizing and it’s Impact on Joint Marketing Activities; First Exploratory Insights for an Empirical Cross-Country Analysis, Journal of Business Strategy, 2006.
-Frazer.C, Downsizing and it’s Impact on Joint Marketing Activities; First Exploratory Insights for an Empirical Cross-Country Analysis, Journal of Business Strategy, 2006.
-Fung, H.D., Kummer, D. and Shen, J.J. (2006a), “China’s privatization reforms: progress and challenges”, Chinese Economy, Vol. 392, pp. 5-25.
-Fung, H.G., Pei, P.H. and Zhang, K. (Eds) (2006b), China and the Challenge of Economic
-Garnaut, R., Song, Y., Yao, Y. and Wang, X. (2001), Private Enterprise in China, The Asia Pacific Press, Canberra.
-GEM (2000), Global Entrepreneurial Monitor, Executive Report, available at: www. (accessed December 8, 2009).Chinese entrepreneurs
-Gleim, J. and Gleim, R. (2003), “Calculating, interpreting, and reporting Cronbach’s reliability coefficient for Likert-type scales”, paper presented at the Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, October 8-10.
Globalization, M.E. Sharpe, New York, NY.
-Gordon, R. and Li, W. (1991), “Chinese enterprise behavior under the reform”, American Economic Review, Vol. 81 No. 2, pp. 202-6.
-Gosh, B.C., Kim, T.S. and Meng, L.A. (1993), “Factors contributing to the success of local SMEs: an insight from Singapore”, Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 10 No. 3, pp. 33-45.
-Government of Ghana (2003), National Medium Term Private Sector Development Strategy,2004-2008, Volume 1: Strategy, Government of Ghana, Accra, December.
-Greene, W.H. (2008), Econometric Analysis, 6th ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
-harvey,Donald,brown,Donald,an experimental approach to organization development,1998,p.177
-Herberer, T. (2003), Private Entrepreneurs in China and Vietnam: Social and Political Functioningof Strategic Group, Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden, p. 157 (translated by Timothy J.Gluckman).
-Huck, J.F. and McEwen, T. (1991), “Competencies needed for small business success: perception of Jamaican entrepreneurs”, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 3, pp. 90-3.
-Hung M. Chu ,Orhan Kara,Xiaowei Zhu,Kubilay Gok(2010),Chinese entrepreneurs Motivations, success factors, problems, and business-related stress , Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2011
-information”, Management Science, Vol. 46 No. 8, pp. 1032-48.
-IResearch Consulting Group (2007), “Chinese SMEs reached 31,518,000 in year 2006”, available at:,html (accessed December 4, 2007).
-Ivancevich, J.M. and Matteson, M.T. (1980), Stress and Work: A Managerial Perspective, Scott Foresman, Glenview, IL.
-K . Herbst – D . Garcia – J . Wells Bringing together the links in the supply chain
-Kara, O., Chu, H.M. and Benzing, C. (2010), “Determinants of entrepreneur’s success: evidence from Turkey”, Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp. 1-15.
-Kiggundu, M. (2002), “Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in Africa: what is known and what needs to be done”, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, Vol. 7, pp. 239-58.
-Kisunko, G., Brunetti, A. and Wilder, B. (1999), “Institutional obstacles to doing business:region-by-region results from a worldwide survey of the private sector”, The World Bank: Policy Research Working Paper Series: 1759, The World Bank, Washington, DC.
-Kitching, B.M. and Woldies, A. (2004), “Female entrepreneurs in transitional economies:a comparative study of businesswomen in Nigeria and China”, Proceedings of HawaiiInternational Conference on Business, Honolulu, HI, USA.
-Kozan, M.K., Oksoy, D. and Ozsoy, O. (2006), “Growth plans of small business in Turkey: comparative study of business women in Nigeria and China”, Proceedings of Hawaii Conference on Business, Honolulu, HI, USA.
-Kuratko, D.F., Hornsby, J.S. and Naffziger, D.W. (1997), “An examination of owners’ goals in sustaining entrepreneurship”, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 35 No. 1, pp. 24-33.
-Langowitz, N. and Minniti, M. (2007), “The entrepreneurial propensity of women”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 31 No. 3, pp. 341-64.
-Latack, J.C., Kinicki, A.J. and Prussia, G.E. (1995), “An integrative process model of coping with job loss”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 20, pp. 311-42.
-Lau, T., Chan, K.F. and Ho, R. (2004), “Cross-border entrepreneurs – a study of the changing strategies and competencies of Hong Kong entrepreneurs upon exposure to the emerging market of China”, Journal of Enterprising Culture, Vol. 12, pp. 165-93.
-Lee, C. (1998), “Quality management by small manufacturers in Korea: an exploratory study”, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 36 No. 4, pp. 61-7.
-Liao, D. and Sohmen, P. (2001), “The development of modern entrepreneurship in China”, Stanford Journal of East Asian Affairs, Vol. 1, pp. 27-33.
-Lin, C. (1998), “Success factors of small- and medium-sized enterprises in Taiwan: an analysis of cases”, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 36 No. 4, pp. 43-56.
-Liu, Y. (2003), “Development of private entrepreneurship in China: process, problems and countermeasures”, Entrepreneurship in Asia: Playbook for Prosperity, available at: www. (accessed December 8, 2009).
-Mack, D.A. and McGee, J.E. (2001), “Occupational stress and the small business owner: the role of task complexity and social support”, paper presented at the USASBE/SBIDA, 2001 Conference, Orlando, FL, available at: proceedingsDocs/USASBE2001proceedings-045.pdf (accessed December 8, 2009).
-Mambula, C. (2002), “Perceptions of SME growth constraints in Nigeria”, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 40, pp. 58-65. Management Review, Vol. 14 No. 4, pp. 532-50. Management, Vol. 36 No. 4, pp. 73-6.
-Mann, V. and Thorpe, R. (1998), “Characteristics of Asian and white female business owners”,Journal of Consumer Studies & Home Economics, Vol. 22, pp. 221-9.
-Margaret,E(1996).Empowerment and Organizational change,international journal of contemporary Hospitality Management pp325-333
-Masurel, E. and Smit, H. (2000), “Planning behavior of small firms in central Vietnam”, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 38 No. 2, pp. 96-102.
-McShane, S.L. and Von Glinow, M.A. (2005), Organizational Behavior, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Boston, MA.
-Michel Marchesnay(2011), RESEARCH NOTES: Fifty years of entrepreneurship and SME: a personal view, Journal of Small Business and
-Naffziger, D.W., Hornsby, J.S. and Kuratko, D.F. (1994), “A proposed research model of
-Nasurdin, A.M., Ramayah, T. and Beng, Y.C. (2006), “Organizational structure and organizational climate as potential predictors of job stress: evidence from Malaysia”, International Journal of Commerce and Management, Vol. 16, pp. 116-28.
-Nunnally, J. (1978), Psychometric Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
-OECD (2005), “Toward better structural business and SME statistics”, OECD Statistic
-Palmer, M. (1971), “The application of psychological testing to entrepreneurial potential”, California Management Review, Vol. 13, pp. 32-8.
-Palmer.b, Beyene.j and kovinsky, Enhancing the competitiveness and productivity by downsizing, journal of management, 2007.
-Palmer.b, Beyene.j and kovinsky, Enhancing the competitiveness and productivity by downsizing, journal of management, 2007.
-Palmer.b, Beyene.j and kovinsky, Enhancing the competitiveness and productivity by downsizing, journal of management, 2007.
-Papulova, Z. and Mokros, M. (2007), “Importance of managerial skills and knowledge in management for small entrepreneurs”, E-leader, available at:
Papulova-Mokros.pdf (accessed December 8, 2009).
-Pingle, V. (2005), “Micro business and sustainable livelihoods”, paper presented at the Conference on New Frontiers of Social Policy: Development in a Globalizing World,Arusha, December 12-15.
-Pistrui, D., Huang, W., Oksoy, D., Jing, Z. and Welsch, H. (2001), “Entrepreneurship in China: characteristics, attributes, and family forces shaping the emerging private sector”, Family Business Review, Vol. 2 No. 14, pp. 141-52.
-Pisturi, D., Welsch, H. and Roberts, J. (1997), “The re-emergence of family business in the transforming Soviet Bloc”, Family Business Review, Vol. 10 No. 3, pp. 221-37.
-Pope, J. (2001), Confronting Corruption: The Elements of National Integrity System, Transparency International, London.
-Porter, M, Downsizing and the New Economics of Competition” Harvard Business Review, 1998.
-Porter, M, Downsizing and the New Economics of Competition” Harvard Business Review, 1998.
-Porter, M, Downsizing and the New Economics of Competition” Harvard Business Review, 1998.pp. 39-71. pp. 77-87.
-Pratt, V. (2001), Sharing Business Skills in Kenya, Center for International Private Enterprise, Washington, DC, available at: (accessed March 20, 2006).Chinese entrepreneurs Quanyu, H., Leonard, J. and Tong, C. (1997), Business Decision Making in China, International Business Press, New York, NY.Psychology, Vol. 66, pp. 285-302.
-Rahim, A. (1996), “Stress, strain, and their moderators: an empirical comparison of entrepreneurs and managers”, Journal of Small Business Management, January, pp. 46-58.
-Raj Kumar, Dixit Garg and T.K. Garg(2010), TQM success factors in North Indian manufacturing and service industries, the TQM Journal Vol. 23 No. 1
-Ran, J. and Lang, L. (2000), Chinese Government and Private Economy, The China Federal of Industry and Commerce Press, Beijing.
-Roberts, J.A., Lapidus, R.A. and Chonko, L.B. (1997), “Salesperson and stress: the moderating role of locus control on work stressors and felt stress”, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 5, pp. 93-108.
-Robichaud, Y., McGraw, E. and Roger, A. (2001), “Toward the development of a measuring instrument for entrepreneurial motivation”, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp. 189-202.
-Roger Moser, Daniel Kern, Sina Wohlfarth and Evi Hartmann(2011), Supply network configuration benchmarking Framework development and application in the Indian automotive industry,Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 18 No. 6
-Sandler, I.N. and Lakey, B. (1982), “Locus control as stress moderator: the role of control perceptions and social support”, American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 10, pp. 65-80.
-Scheinberg, S. and Macmillan, I.C. (1988), “An 11 countries study of motivations to start a business”, in Ronstadt, R., Hornagay, J.A., Peterson, R. and Vesper, K.S. (Eds), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Babson College, Wellesley, MA, pp. 669-87.
-Schmits.l, A Tool for Cluster Development :An Edmonton Manufacturing Cluster Development Case Stud,second edition, upper saddle river, nj:prentice hall, 2006.
-Schmits.l, A Tool for Cluster Development :An Edmonton Manufacturing Cluster Development Case Stud,second edition, upper saddle river, nj:prentice hall, 2006.
-Schmits.l, A Tool for Cluster Development :An Edmonton Manufacturing Cluster Development Case Stud,second edition, upper saddle river, nj:prentice hall, 2006.
-Selimzaim & Mehmet Sevkli, The Methodology of Quality Function
-Simon, J., Mcmillan, J. and Woodruff, C. (2002), “Property rights and finance”, American
-Simon, S. (2008), “What’s a good value for Cronbach’s alpha?”, available at: www.
-Stanley E. Fawcett, Matthew A. Waller and Amydee M. Fawcett(2010) Elaborating a dynamic systems theory to understand collaborative inventory successes and failures, The International Journal of Logistics Management Vol. 21 No. 3
-Stevenson, L. (1998), “Women and economic development: a focus of entrepreneurship”, Journal of Development Planning, Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, Vol. 1, pp. 113-26.
-Streiner, D. and Norman, D. (1989), Health Measurement Scales: A Practical Guide to Their Development and Use, Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
-Swierczek, F. and Ha, T.T. (2003), “Motivation, entrepreneurship, and performance of SMEs in Vietnam”, Journal of Enterprising Culture, Vol. 11, pp. 47-68.
-Syed Awais Ahmad Tipu(2010), Managing success factors in entrepreneurial ventures: a behavioral approach, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research Vol. 17 No. 5
-Tambunan.t, Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises with Downsizing Approach: A Policy Experience from Indonesia, Journal of Small Business Management, 43(2), pp. 138–154, 2005.
-Tambunan.t, Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises with Downsizing Approach: A Policy Experience from Indonesia, Journal of Small
-Tambunan.t, Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises with Downsizing Approach: A Policy Experience from Indonesia, Journal of Small Business Management, 43(2), pp. 138–154, 2005.
-thompson,john,lead with vision,Thompson press,1997,p.11
Vesper, K.H. (Eds), Encyclopedia Entrepreneurship, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,
Vol. 47 No. 1.
-Woldie, A. and Adersua, A. (2004), “Female entrepreneurs in a transitional economy: business women in Nigeria”, International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 31, pp. 78-93.
-Wolf, C. (2004), “China’s rising unemployment challenge”, Asian Wall Street Journal, July, available at: (accessed December 8, 2009).
-Wong, M.F. and Wong, M.P. (2002), “Workplace stress: causes, consequences, and why it concerns managers”, Akauzitan Nasronal, Vol. 11, pp. 24-8. (accessed December 8,
-Yoji Akao, QFD: Past, Present, and future, International Symposium on QFD’ 97-Linkoping, Asahi University
-Yueh, L. (2007), “China’s entrepreneurs”, Discussion Paper Series, Department of Economics, Pembroke College, University of Oxford, Oxford, March.
-Yusuf, A. (1995), “Critical success factors for small business: perceptions of South Pacific entrepreneurs”, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 33 No. 2, pp. 68-74

Submit Comment

  • (will not be displayed)

* Required Fields