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The role of technology in the development of industrial infrastructure

  • Thursday, July 27, 2017
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The role of technology in the development of industrial infrastructure (Case Study: leather industry)

1) Dr. Nasser Fegh-hi Farahmand
Department of Industrial Management, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

2) Dr. Mohammad Dabbaghi Sadr
D.B.A. Strategic Management, Tabriz, Iran

In today's competitive environment, organizations need to have a considerable degree of past technological assets. Knowledge management technology based on the operational needs of the industry in developed countries has been formed. So a bunch of problems with it is that the leather industry has not been a serious issue in our society. First, the competitive conditions in the industry for public and private companies do not provide. Second, the technology industry is not leather tools and methods to earn competitive advantage. Third, traditional culture and political conditions of our leather industry - is influenced by our social. None of these issues in the current debate is the knowledge management technology. This requires the development of leather industry in the field of packing, planning issues and the scientific community needs us. This policy requires cooperation of the industry. Besides raising awareness, the development of technology management in the leather industry as a prudent policy reform should be pursued. The objective of this research is to establish the characteristics of infrastructural development for leather processing industry in Tabriz and offer a suitable model to address this development process. The research questions are: What are the characteristics of a suitable infrastructural development model for leather processing industry? What model could be designed to provide a suitable roadmap to achieve mentioned infrastructural development? The methodology of the research is descriptive and survey. The sampling procedure adopted for this research is Systematic Sampling method. The research used 120 completed questionnaires for the analysis. The research studies were based on literature review and field data and information. Information was gathered from Internet, international research paper data banks, interviews and finally survey questionnaire. Careful examination of a collection of research papers showed related theoretical proposals and interviews and related indices, the elements and variables of the research were identified.
Key Words: Technology management, technology, development, infrastructure, Leather industry


Technology management is a process that helps organizations to important information and skills that are sort of institutional memory and typically are not organized to identify, select, organize and publish freely. It is organized for learning, problem solving, strategic planning and decision making that enables dynamic, efficient and effective manner. Knowledge management technology and offered it emphasizes the identification, so that it can be officially be shared and re-used as a result. One of the most important success factors of knowledge management technologies and competitive enterprises in the information age. The importance of this issue to the extent that today a number of organizations are measuring their knowledge, and the intellectual capital of the organization as well as an index to rank companies in their reports reflect. Technology and management, it is not a new phenomenon. Man has always been a technology and its management. But today's technologies, has created a new business environment that has all the traditional molds. Advanced technologies with an emphasis on efficiency, synergy and velocity values, the global economy has changed dramatically. All organizations are under pressure to do more work faster, better and with fewer resources to do. In particular, the speed, the competition has become one of the main parameters for the triumph of technology management as a core competency, and the act is necessary for the survival and growth of the firm. Perhaps globalization and technology are the most important factors that influence business performance. The other two categories are mutually connected. Technology management is an interdisciplinary topic that science, engineering, and management connected rings. From the perspective of technology, management, technology is the main factor of wealth production and wealth is more than money that factors such as knowledge, intellectual capital, effective use of resources, protection of natural resources and other factors to improve the standard and quality of life are included. Leather industry has a long history even before the presence of Arians in Iran and the industry which once upon a time had a global fame, nowadays experiences the dispersion era. Tens of the famous names in this filed reminds us of men of industry who developed the work in order to change it to successful sector. However, instead of increasing development, one by one these industrial units are converted to the cemetery of industry (Nasirian, 2011).

2. Technology’s role in infrastructure development in the leather industry

In spite its main role in the macro economy of the country and even the region, however nowadays faces the problems such as sever increase in price of domestic and foreign raw material prices, entering the similar foreign goods, losing the experienced human resources, insufficient working capital, economic depression, inflation and being far from global manufacturing trends. The pressure of such problems makes the friendly production process to an unknown work cycle that seems more dangerous day by day. The growth rate of livestock industry, skin and slaughterhouses is low and incomparable. Actualizing the considered values in leather industry (obtaining added value, creating employment and industrial development) besides the need for balanced development of leather industry has direct relation with development of livestock, skin, slaughterhouse and leather industry to complete its value chain. Since developing livestock, skin and leather industry have faced different problems. Technology management system that manages the creation, acquisition, and use of technology possible and include the responsibility that human activities in order to serve the needs of the customer. Research, invention and development of technology and technological advances have created the basic components. But the path to wealth creation, there are important components that use or commercialization of the technology. In other words, are realizing the benefits of the technology that will result to the client. Customer is an individual, company, or is a public entity, such as defense organizations. The invention is placed on the shelf, does not produce wealth, and not even an idea that appears to apply to be registered as a patent no financial return. When technology leads to the production of wealth or a business, or at the strategic or operational objectives of an organization should be applied. Technology management is a link between the fields of science, engineering and management systems. Academic perspective, the traditional disciplines in science and engineering are involved in scientific discoveries and technological creations. Traditional disciplines of management with firm management issues and economic issues, financial markets and public policy are concerned. Management, technology, art and science using technology along with other resources to create value for the organization. Companies that are able to survive and be successful in today's environment, we face the challenges of the genus speed, cost and quality are. IT managers need to deal with various issues of business skills, learn discipline and strategic. Business ethics and social responsibility, critical aspects of technology management. (Fegh-hi Farahmand, 83)

3. Methodology

The present research is studying the development method for infrastructures of leather organization of Tabriz. the researchers has prepared a questionnaire for studying the development infrastructure of leather organization in two parts that first part includes questions in relation to individual identity of the answerers and second part has considered 179 case as the influential elements after studying the available literature for developing and improving the function of leather organization. The functions were divided to seven groups and were evaluated in seven choice scale of Likert as follows:
Internal-organization human resources, human resources out of organization, support, laws, technology, trade relations and innovation
The descriptive statistics of the data in the present chapter first studies the anthropological variables (age, education, etc). The second part includes descriptive statistics of the questions in questionnaire and analytical statistics are given in the third part. In the present study, Klomogrov-Spirnov test is used to analyze the normality of the variables and determining the type of the test for studying the data that results present the normality of the variables. In order to test the given model and finding suitable model for research, multi-variable regression is used. The tests of comparing the mean and variance analyses are used to study the influence of the anthropological variables in response to related questions of the hypothesis. In order to determine the gender of the sample individuals, one of the questionnaire questions asks in this regard as Table 1.

As it could be seen in the table, 118 (98/34 percent) of the statistical samples are man and 2 (1/66 percent) are woman and it shows that there are low number of women who work in leather organization. It shows that unfortunately this organization do not employ woman. It could be related to culture or lack of education in this regard. In comparison with developed countries, mostly women work in the final stages of production (painting, sorting and packing) that influences the quality of the leather. Unfortunately women are not used as work force in this field.
From educational standpoint, the statistical samples are classified to 5 groups. The following table shows their education level as Table 2.

As it could be seen in the table, around 20.84 percent of the population (25) are uneducated or less than high school diploma, 37.5 percent (45) high school diploma, 16.67 percent (20) associate course, 15.48 percent (19) B.Sc, 6.66 percent (8) M.Sc and 2.5 percent (3) PhD. Most of the research population was of high school diploma education level.
Considering the work experience, the statistical sample were classified in 6 group, table 4 shows their level of experience as Table 3.

As it could be observed from the table, 120 of the statistical sample around 25 percent (30) have under 1-3 years of experience, 25 percent (30) 4-7 years, 12.5 percent (15) experience of 8-10 years, 14.16 percent (17) experience of 11-15 years, 15 percent (18) 16-20 years and 8.33 percent (10) have more than 20 years of experience.
Considering the age of the sample, they could be classified in 6 groups that table 5 shows their condition as Table 4.

According to the information inserted in table, 12.5 percent (15) are 20-30, 16.67 percent (20) are 30-40, 22.5 percent (27) are 40-50, 31.67 percent (38) are 50-60, and 12.5 percent (15) are between 60 to 70 years old. The rest were unanswered. The number of personnel in each production unit is as Table 5.

Most of the companies in leather organization have less than 20 workers that show the smallness of these units. According to previous studies, in developed countries there are more than 50 workers in factories of this field (WTO. 2010). After analyses, interviews and considering the records of the research, the suggested model of the researcher are as follows:
According to the gathered information through library studies and interview with experts of the field, the influential elements on leather organization were recognized and since after data collection through tests first elements were in acceptable condition, an analysis was carried out. Table 9 shows that the suggested model is valid for development of the leather organization. Table 7 shows that R2 is 0.989 and it shows that independent variables in the model form 98.9 percent of the variable changes in leather organization. Considering the available scales this model is acceptable. Considering ANOVAs table, α of the table is 0.000 and F of the table is 648.128 that show its acceptance as Table 6.

Today's technology is a critical factor in creating the wealth of a country have the ability and knowledge. Tremendous advances in human technology that has been achieved since the twentieth century and their effects on people living with technology as strategic and competitive factors in industrial societies have become. The advent of technology in recent years reflects the increasing attention of scientists, researchers and industrialists to develop it as the most important factor is the transition from production-oriented to knowledge-based industries. Access to technology, both through national production and the transmission and localization
among the major stages of industrial development is inevitable. The socio-economic problems of the country are planning painting. The process is so important today to gain access to various techniques in terms of access "technology management" is defined in different universities around the world and by graduates and artisans in the industry is used in the implementation. Technology management, and research studies using modern techniques, appropriate technologies for the future, predicting and monitoring the process of being moved to other countries in order to evaluate them. Markets in the past, present and future behavior are investigated based on the ability of research, investment, academic, and industrial technologies programs in order to achieve desired levels of different ways such as internal research, technology transfer and cooperation the technology is developed. These facts indicate that "management of technology" oriented approach and involve all of the innovation process, from idea stage to product launch into the "R & D Management" which is thinking and innovative and technology to develop new products or samples and finally the pilot is limited, is quite different.
One of the important missions of "technology management", cleverly directing all or part of efforts to create competitive advantage and innovation of technological innovation is successful. Towards this goal, which we call "Excellence in Technology" call, which requires special measures to make the most of multiplicity to unity in the methods of acquiring technology integration process "research and development" and "technology transfer" and using It is the synergy resulting from this integration. This absence of clear guidelines based on programming methods cannot be developed. One of the major achievements of technology, administrators can manage the synergy is groups rather than relying on the leadership of the organization, its independence and its relations are established. In short, technology management, technology management, strategic planning, competitive, organizations need to prepare a set of management practices within and outside the organization.

The world is changing and the pace of change is increasing day by day. The emergence of new technologies and business model undermined. Management systems must also be able to cope with these changes. The main difference today with yesterday, as is the speed of technological developments. It is associated with changes in the scope of application of the technology. Global competition is almost a new category. In the 1980s and 1990s, with the appearance of new states in the international scene, global competition intensified. Since then, the balance of economic power is constantly changing. Most countries now experience a world of free trade and the formation of trading blocs has become one of the most obvious features of the present age. The aim of this study was to improve the performance model for infrastructure organizations is the leather industry. This study is based on similar studies conducted in different industries were built to be an appropriate response to the research questions. Industry experts believe that Iran claims it is globalization, which must be one of the most important institutions, the technology management strategy is in line with globalization. In this regard, the need to deepen the understanding of the basic concepts involved in industries such as technology issues
and its relation to science, industry and commerce, the concept of appropriate technology, and the technology life-cycle process of technological innovation on the one hand and the practical implications of technology management Such as technology transfer agreements, Technology strategy, Acquisition and use of technology, on the other hand, it is necessary to provide accountability for institutions to complete a regular course of study, yet related industry experience requires and must communicate directly with specific managerial communication bridge between technology management and industry will benefit from the creation. Structure and method based on the research questions, research design and methods appropriate to the research model were presented. In this section, the relationship between the underlying structure of the leather industry and the organization was fully understood. The survey instrument was approved after the interview were sent to samples. After data collection and analysis was performed by grouping them according to the results and summarize the results of the data analysis, we provide suggestions. Our research is the first suggested model for development of proper infrastructure in leather industry of Iran, thus it is not comparable with other models. Considering the effective role of human resources in development of leather industry, presence of experts in leather industry and educated professional and committed workers and personnel and the high education of the directors in producing units and familiarity of authorities in leather related sectors and supports, there would be better way for development of leather industry infrastructures. Since this sector has remained traditional, it reduces the pace of development in East Azerbaijan. Lack of update technology, low utilization of scientific experiences of the world, lack of R & D and equipped laboratories in tanneries, not adapting necessary standards for raw skin from slaughtering to start of tanning and necessary standards for preparing the chemicals, and the related problems has lend to struggles in leather industry. Ignoring the managerial issues specially paying attention to main elements of marketing’s and procurement is most important problem of the field, since most of the producers lack any knowledge with this regard. Consequently, management, technology, industry challenges that managers face and how to deal with them or they are Rami problems should be made out; Consequently, management, technology, industry challenges that managers face and how to deal with them or they are Rami problems should be made out; however, today it can be difficult to find a company that can stand alone and self-sufficient, with their technology needs of the many obstacles that lie ahead are satisfied. Something that may not be part of a pioneering strategy. Now the challenge for the director of technology, optimized combination of internal and external resources to achieve optimal vision technology.

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